Purpose and description
The CRS Multi Purpose Reactor is primarily designed for bleaching experiments, but it can in fact be used in many other applications where a mixing reactor with precise temperature control, pressure control and automatic injections are required.
The reactor has an automatic variable speed mixer, with interchangeable turbines. The reactor is normally charged through a removable cap on the lid, and discharged through a similar solution in the bottom. Liquor can be added from start but also injected automatically in mid-process at recipe set times. There is a pressure control which can be supplied with different types of gases, depending on application. Everything during process, except sampling, is automatic and recipe controlled.
The temperature control is advanced and accurate, using liquid media in the reactor vessel jacket to achieve rapid heat-up and cool-down as well as precise stable temperatures. Complex temperature profiles can be programmed in the recipes to simulate a variety of real situations. Temperature ramps can be both positive and negative and as fast as 5 C/min, somewhat depending on vessel type.
The system is designed to allow for different vessels and the vessels can easily be replaced (along with the turbine) between experiments. Thus it is possible to have a system that can do both high-shear mixing as well as regular mixing and also vessel of different materials (like titanium).
The reactor can be used to simulate a number of bleaching steps, such as oxygen, hydrogen peroxide, pressurized hydrogen peroxide, ozone, chlorine dioxide and enzyme bleaching. Some ozone applications require the gas injection option. The reactor is equipped with three liquor injectors of 2.5 L each as standard.
The system is highly automated and requires little operator attention while in operation. Data acquisition and logging is done automatically.
For a quick overview see below. For more technical information see next chapter.
Design pressure: 15 barg
Operational pressure: 0 – 14 barg (using the supplied gas – oxygen, nitrogen etc)
Design temperature: 200 C
Operational temperature: app. 20 – 180 C inside reactor
Materials: 316L equivalent on all process parts, 304 equivalent on supporting structures. Reactors can also be made in titanium or other materials.
Vessel sizes: Vessels can be replaced between experiments. One vessel is included with the delivery, but other can ordered at the same time or later. Standard vessel size for regular mixing is around 13 L, allowing for a charge of slightly under 1 kg pulp OD. High shear mixing vessels are smaller, around 4 L.
Mixing: High-shear mixing possible for smaller vessels. Regular high intensity mixing can be done in a 13 L vessel.
Heating: 12 kW on heating media
Sampling: Hot and pressurized vessels can be sampled any time
Injectors: Three liquor injectors of 2.5 L each is standard, gas injection is an option. All injectors, liquor and gas, are fired automatically at pre-set times in the recipes.
More technical information
The machine consists of two systems – one is the process side system with the reactor, the other one is the hot water loop for temperature control.
The process side is made up of the reactor (replaceable), injectors and auxiliary automatic valves for pressure control etc.
The hot water loop actually makes up the major physical part of the machine. It consists of a closed loop of heating media (normally water), with heater, coolers, temperature controllers, expansion vessel etc. When firing off an injector the cool content of the injector passes through a pre-heater on the heating media side, bringing the injected liquor to near process temperature immediately.
The standard reactor sizes of 13 L and 4 L for regular and high shear respectively. The vessels are closed against a fixed vessel lid (teflonization of the lid is an option). The lid does not need to be opened under normal operating conditions, only when switching between vessels. Charging and discharging is done through entry and exit points. The discharge is done with a water flush inside the reactor and all discharged material should be collected in a bucket below.
There is also a special lid fitting for a syringe that can be used for minor manual injections of enzymes.
The CRS Multi Purpose Reactor is controlled from a PC, with an HMI system developed in a standard industrial framework, Wonderware Intouch or similar. The program is designed with the ambition to be easy to use, offer broad functionality and flexibility, and also to respect safety.
A recipe program allows recipes to be built at any time before the experiment is run. The recipe program can be installed on other computers as well, though unless a server solution is also installed by CRS any new recipes will have to be copied manually to the control PC.
The system will continuously log temperatures, pressures and other control attributes to either a database or CSV based files (which can be viewed in a spreadsheet program like MS Excel).
On a lower level the machine is controlled from a PLC inside the electrical cabinet.
Scope of delivery and options
The standard scope of delivery includes the following:
- Complete multi purpose reactor.
- One reactor vessel plus turbine.
- A movable rack for lowering the vessel (and switching between vessels).
- Control computer with all necessary programs installed. Network cables and switch.
- Required licenses for hardware and software.
- CE labels.
- Connection points for required supplies.
The options follow below. Some additional customization or options are always possible, please inquire.
Option 1: Start-up & training – one week on site by one engineer from CRS, assisting with practical issues for the installation as well as doing the start-up and training of operators. The customer will need to provide the necessary resources for bringing the machine to the correct location, as well as connecting it to the supplies, but CRS can supervise where needed.
If this option is not ordered the start-up has to be done by customer. However, in such a case CRS will be happy to receive the customer in our work-shop for a one-day free training and walk-through of the machine.
Option 2: Spare part package – a selection of spare parts aimed at giving the least possible downtime in case parts fail. Spare parts can of course be order individually at a later stage if needed.
Option 3: Extra reactor – titanium, plastic or other special material reactor – an extra reactor which can be easily mounted to replace the original one. Allows for other chemicals and processes. If an extra turbine is needed it will be included too in this option.
Option 4: Gas injector system – an extra injector for gases, with automatic injection control. This option is required for ozone bleaching experiments (along with an ozone generator that produces high concentration and high pressure ozone). Any ozone generating equipment is not part of Option 4.
Installation requirements & practicalities
The system has some necessary requirements that need to be fulfilled in order to run it. These have to be prepared by the customer before any installation is to take place.
- Power connection – the requirement is a 3-phase 400 VAC 50 Hz connection at no less than 40A capacity. Other setups, like other voltages or 60 Hz, are possible but please check with CRS first.
- Pressurized air connection – the requirement is 6 – 10 bar, water and oil free.
- Process gas connection – operator choice, usually nitrogen or oxygen, preferably at 20 bar pressure.
- Water connection – a water pressure of at least 3 bar is recommended, otherwise the coolers will not work optimally. Tap water quality is preferred.
- Drain connection – the drain will receive liquors at up to 70 C. The vent is connected to the drain inside the machine. Beware of smells and toxic gases.
Additionally there are some less critical but nonetheless important aspects to consider.
- Safety – the system should be used in accordance with what the risk analysis states. Please make sure that the requirements stated in that document can be met with the chosen lab setup.
The machine weighs around 800 kg. It will be supported by machine feet (included with the delivery). The outer measurements of the machine and the recommended floor space are shown below.
To transport the machine into a room the door needs a width of at least 1050 and a height of at least 2000.